Schindler's List

by Thomas Keneally

Prologue- Autumn 1943: Oskar Schindler's chauffeur picked him up from his apartment building in Straszewskiego Street and made a stupid joke. His wife, Emilie, lived often in Moravia. They went past Wawel Castle, where Hans Frank ruled the Government General of Poland. He had a plant in the suburb of Zablocie. He was going to dine with SS Hauptsturmfuhrer Amon Goeth, whom Oskar despised. A Jewish prisoner named Poldek Pfefferberg was also going to Goeth's villa. Lisiek, Goeth's 19 year old orderly, had difficulty getting the ring out of thhe bathtub, and Poldek, Lisiek's former teacher, would help. The Rosner brothers, Henry (violin) and Leo (accordion) were playing music for them. At Goeth's table were seven men: Julian Scherner (SS head in Cracow), Rolf Czurda (SD head in Cracow), There was also Franz Bosch, a WWI veteran who managed various workships. Oskar despised them, but needed their cooperation. Oskar did like Julius Madritsch, owner of a uniform factory inside Plaszow, the forced labor camp. There was also Raimund Titsch, Madritsch's manager. There were four emale guests, but not Majola, Goeth's mistress. Oskar was a Sudeten German. Oskar discusses business with Bosch, who offends him by making light of his marriage to Emilie. Because Emilie was like Frau Louisa Schindler, his mother, he felt like Bosch was making light of the senior Schindler marriage. Amon embarrasses his Jewish maid, Helen Hirsch, whom he calls Lena out of laziness. Czurda tells a story about Toebbens, an employer of Jews whom Heinrich Himmler busted. Oskar left to go see his German mistress, Ingrid. Goeth's girl stopped him from beating Helen. Lisiek reported about the ring to him, so Amon beat him. A few days later, Amon shot Lisiek, but because he harnessed a horse and buggy for Bosch without first asking Amon. Schindler went to see Helen, and gives her a candy bar. Helen tells Schindler that Amon likes to beat her in front of the women. She believes that one day she will be shot. Schindler told her that he wouldn't, for he enjoys her too much. She gives him her nest egg (4000 zloty) and asks him to save her sister.

Chapter One: Sigmund List's armored divisions had takeen Cracow on September 6, 1939. Oskar was born on April 28, 1908 into the Austrian Empire of Franz Josef in the industrial city of Zwittau. Hans Schindler was culturally an Austrian, but spoke German. There was a sister, Elfriede. The Schindlers were Catholic. Oskar had a few middle class Jewish friends. Their neighbor was Dr. Felix Kantor, a liberal rabbi. The adolescent Oskar loved to ride a 500cc Galloni. In the spring of 1928, Oskar raced a 250cc Moto-Guzzi, of which there were only four on the continent, all owned by international racers. In his first race, he came in third. For the next challenge, he won, but lost by a technicality. He beat the German champion Walfried Winkler and his rival Kurt Henkelmann. That summer he married Emilie, a reserved convent school girl. He did military service and hated it. The family business went bankrupt in 1935 and that same year his father lefft his mother. Even during the depression he got a job as sales manager of Moravian Electronic. Both Hans Schindler and Emilie believed that Hitler could not succeed. At a party, the hostess introduced Oskar to a German named Eberhard Gebauer, for whom he agreed to work.

Chapter Two: In October 1939, two German NCOs entered the showroom of J.C. Buchheister & Company in Cracow and insisted on buying bolts of cloth to send home. The Jewish clerk explained that they did not sell directly to the public. Later in the day, two German accounts managers visited. One was young; the other was named Sedd Aue. Aue sent an ofice boy with a message to the company's accountant, Itzhak Stern, who had influenza. He had just sent the message to Stern's house when his secretary came into the office and announced that Oskawr Schindler was waiting outside. Aue asked Schindler questions, such as if he was related to General Julius Schindler. When Schindler and Stern meet, Stern tells him that he is a Jew. Oskar says plainly that he is a German. He asks Stern about Rekord, a company in bankruptcy. Stern warns him that there is a limit to the people that he could hire to work.

Chapter Three: Another Cracow Jew, Poldek Pfefferberg, met Schindler that autumn, but he almost killed him. One day, Schindler called on Mina Pfefferberg to ofer her a commission to redo an apartment formerly owned by a Jewish family named Nussbaum. Poldek had a pistol with him. He told Mina that his wife was coming up from Czechoslovakia, and had more French and Swedish tastes. Mina was a bit resistent, but relented. Poldek agrees to get Schindler a dozen shirts.

Chapter Four: Itzhak Stern met Schindler on December 3. He told hhim that "it" was going to start tomorrow. Stern thought that he meant 'tomorrow' in more general terms. Oskar got the news from two sources: Sergeant Herman Toffel and Dieter Reeder, who worked for Czurda. The SS invasion of Kazimierz aroused disgust in Oskar. Some Nazis believed that there should be a giant concentration camp for Jews, in Lublin or possibly Madagascar. Zyklon B, a disinfectant chemical compound, would replace Madagascar as the solution. Leni Riefenstahl came to Lodz with a roving camera and saw a line of Jews executed. She went to Hitler and made a scene. During the Aktion, the SS carried economic warfare from door to door. At a temple, Max Redlicht was shot for refusing to spit on a parchment Torah scroll.

Chapter Five: Victoria Klonowska, a Polish secretary, was another Schindler mistress. Schindler wanted her to find a place where he could take friends. She found a jazz cellar north of the city square (Rynek). Oskar got together a party at the club for a number of his friends. Toffel, Reeder, a surveyor named Steinhauser, Gebauer, and Martin Plathe. They discuss the plight of the Jews and the Judenrats. Marek Biberstein was the Cracow president of the Judenrat. Oskar demanded a change of subject.

Chapter Six:The Aktion of December 4 convinced Stern that Schindler was the just Goy. Abraham Bankier, the office manager of Rekord, needed capital and looked for investors. Emilie Schindler came to Cracow. Oskar had never gotten a 400,000 dowry for marriage. Poldek asks Emilie where Frau Schindler is- but he means Ingrid. Emilie offers him a drink, but he refuses. Oskar leased a factory across the river in Zablocie at No. 4 Lipowa Street. Oskar was soon employing 250 Poles, five times the amount that his father employed. Within months, Oskar was emplying 150 Jewish workers. Schindler was a Jewish sympathizer, along with Julius Madritsch, a Viennese. Oskar became angry when the SS made his workers shovel snow on the way to work.

Chapter Seven: The Rosner brothers settled in the village of Tyniec after going from Warsaw. Henry, Leopold, Manci (Mrs. Leopold) and Olek (5 yr. old son) left right before theh sealing of the Warsaw ghetto. One evening a German-speaking Pole heard the brothers playing and told Henry that the mayor of Cracow, Pavlu, would like to hear them play. After their presentation, they were taken, and told to have a nice holiday. Emilie returned home in autumn. Stern came to tell Oskar that the David and Leon C accused Oskar of being a German gangster and a thug. Ingrid was the C's supervisor, and they were robbing her blind. They said that Oskar beat up David C and had the police beat up Leon C.; Stern brought news of Biberstein's jail sentence- two years in Montelupich prison.

Chapter Eight: Oskar didn't have a bad Christmas. Oskar bought Klonowska a poodle, Ingrid jewelry and sent some to Emilie. That morning, Oskar went to Mass at the Church of St. Mary, was angered by the stealing of the tryptych, and prayed for his mother. Oskar began making shell casing to have the appearance of heavy industry. Oskar began to get hints that there was to be a ghetto for Jews. There would be a ghetto in the suburb of Podgorze across the river. Its boundaries were the river, the railway line to Lwow, the hills beyond Rekawka, and Podgorze Place. Juda Dresner felt the ghetto may be the bottommost point. Jews were accustomed to ghettos. The edict also proteected the Jews from Poles. The ghetto inconvenienced Oskar because it blocked off a transportation route. From March 20, Oskar's Jewish workers would not receive any wages and would live by their rations. While the Jews moved, Poles jeered at them. Edith Liebgold lived with her mother and baby, and got a job at DEF to save both. She thought it was too good to be true.

Chapter Nine: That spring Schindler drove to Zwittau to see Emilie, his aunts and sister. His sister married a railway official. An old friend told Oskar to talk to his father. Hans apologized with looks and gestures.

Chapter Ten: The OD, an auxiliary police force, seemed benign, but was a breeding ground for corruption. Pfefferberg was a member. Propaganda against Jews worsened. "Jews-Lice-Typhus." Oskar visited the ghetto, and realized that Julian Scherner, a Nazi, wanted to work the Jews rather than kill them. Pfefferberg wanted to escape the force because of a rumor that the Gestapo would make all OD men swear an oath to Hitler. Biberstein told him to fake a bad back. Germany invaded Russia. There was no hope for the Madagascar solution.

Chapter Eleven: The German Box Factory stood in an alley off Lipowa, and was managed by Szymon Jereth, the former owner. Oskar sent Hans Frank a monthly bank draft of 1000RM. Oskar found himself under arrest. Someone had gone to Pomorska Street and given information. The arrest was relaxed. Oskar made a list of people to call: Scherner, Plathe, Bosch, and the German chairman of Ferrum AG, where Schindler bought his steel. They ask him who the plant manager of DEF is, and he says Abraham Bankier. They ask him of Bankier is Jewish. Schindler was locked in a bedroom. He listened to the radio during his time in jail. The audtiror woke him, and told him that the cursory examination of his records was enough, and that they had received certain phone calls.

Chapter Twelve: Genia, who had been taken care of in the country, returned to the Dresners. She had a passion for red. Danka Dresner (14) got a job as a cleaning woman at the Luftwaffe air base. Danka told her that she knew Genia's mother, Eva, but Genia told that her mother's name was Jasha. Idek Schindel, Genia's uncle, arrived, and she acted like a child. April 28 was Schindler's birthday, his 34th. He kissed a girl named Kucharska. He was denounced for being a "Jew-kisser." His next arrest was more professional than the last. He shared a cell with an SS man named Philip. Oskar gets wine for the guards. Oskar explained to Rolf Czurda that he kissed her because he was drunk. Czurda told him that it was policy that the Jews had no future.

Chapter Thirteen: Untersturmfuhrer Brandt had the Judenrat president, Artur Rosenzweig around to Pomorska for a beating. Henry Rosner worked in the Luftwaffe mess, and met a German chef-manager named Richard, who trusted Henry and became friends with him. Richard offered to take Olek to his apartment. There was going to be an Aktion. Olek was taken out under the cape of Richard's girlfriend. Pfefferberg was ordered to tutor the children of Symche Spira, the OD chief. He thought that this would make him an essential worker. As he emerged from the bank, he saw that the Polish Blue Police were inspecting everyone's cards and arresting those without the sticker. He joined the non-essential line, while Mila joined the other. A boy lies and helps Pfefferberg get into the good line. At the labor office, he gets his profession changed to metal polisher by a kind worker.

Chapter Fourteen: Oskar heard that ghetto procedures were growing more intense. On June 3, Bankier didn't show up. Oskar found out that he was on one of the cars, and called to him. He gets the train to stop and saves Bankier, who had forgotten to go to the labor office to get his Blauscheins.

Chapter Fifteen: Schindler and Ingrid went riding on a hill overlooking the ghetto. The SS used Jews to flog Jews. They watched a little girl in red watch men being shot. Oskar became angered at the loss of a German culture. Tadeus Pankiewicz ran an apothecary in Plac Zgody. He was the only Pole allowed to live in the ghetto. He witnessed the horrors. Dr. Idek Schindel saw that they were lining children on and taking them.

Chapter Sixteen: Schindler did not believe that Genia survived the Aktion. He learned that the Aktion was led by Wilhelm Kunde and Otto von Mallotke. David Gutter became the next Judenrat president. The pharmacist Bachner returned to the ghetto and told horror stories about the gas chambers. Jereth convinced Schindler to build a hut for his workers. During the Aktion, Danka Dresner was able to fit into the hiding place, but not her mother. An OD boy, who knew Mrs. Dresner, saved her by telling her where to hide.

Chapter Seventeen: Sedlacek, an Austrian dentist, arrived in Cracow and made inquiries about Schindler. He was a courier for a Zionist rescue organization in Budapest. Someone nominated Schindler's name to him, so he unknowingly held the post of righteous person. Sedlacek had a friend, Major Franz von Korab, who may have had a Jewish grandmother. Schindler was concerned that nobody would believe the horror stories. Sedlacek invited him to come to Budapest by sneaking on a freight train.

Chapter Eighteen: It was an uncomfortable trip to Hungary. He rode in a freight van filled with bundles of the Party newspaper. He stayed at the Pannonia, and Samu Springmann and Dr. Rezso Kastner came to see him. Schindler was agitated when he told them the information about the Jews. The Warsaw ghetto was reduced by 4/5, Lodz by 2/3, Cracow by 1/2. The two would send a report to Istanbul, which would be used to stir the Palestinian Zionists.

Chapter Nineteen: Amon Goeth came from Lublin to bring about the liquidation of the ghetto and to take command of the Forced Labor Camp at Plaszow. He was a practical man, but considered himself a philosopher. He was much like Oskar. Amon was exhilirated by his work. Amon thought that he could have Bosch, Madritsch and Schindler transfer their Jewish labor into the camp. Scherner spoke about the concentration of labor, then introduced the new Commandant. Amon knew that Madritsch would move his plant in. Amon watched the buildin of the barracks under the supervision of Albert Hujar. Diana Rieter, a former architect, told them that the foundations hadn't been correctly made and she wanted the stone and cement dug up and work to begin again. Hujar screamed at her. Amon ordered her shot, and after she died, he did what she advised.

Chapter Twenty: Schindler went to see Goeth with a bottle of brandy to refuse to move into Plaszow. Oskar promised "gratitude," which meant liquor and diamonds. Stern found Oskar depressed about the camp. On the ghetto's last morning, a Shabbat, March 13, Goeth arrived in Plac Zgody, took some cognac and waited for Willi Haase, who would have strategic control of the Aktion. He gave a speech- that today was history. Hujar shot Dr. Blau in the head, and then executed some patients. Dr. H had his patients commit suicide to avoid execution. He did not commit suicide because he and his wife had an escape route.

Chapter Twenty-One: Poldek and Mila were the last of their families. He was going to escape through the sewers. He went to see Dr. H, then returned to his house (No 2.) to find Mila, who wasn't there. He saw a pile of sixty to seventy corpses. He could hear the baying of dogs. An SS man threw a child against a wall, killing it. Pfefferberg pretends to be an SS supporter to avoid murder. He acts like he has been given orders. Wulkan the jeweler was the last person out of the ghetto.

Chapter Twenty-Two: The first morning Goeth murdered a prisoner at random, people thought it was an aberration. It would become routine. Oskar got a call from Madritsch, wanting him to complain about Goeth. The workers would arrive late because of his punishments. Oskar wanted to build his own camp for his own workers. The Nazis were open to that scheme. Dr. Biberstein estimated that the daily ration was between seven and eleven hundred calories. That year DEF had a profit of 18.5 million RM. Oskar sent a plea to the construction office for the help of a young engineer named Adam Garde. He was to help build the barracks at Lipowa Street. Goeth's dogs were Rolf and Ralf. Garde had a crushed hand.

Chapter Twenty-Three: There was competition to get into Emalia. Dolek Horowitz tried to get his wife and children in. His child Richard was allowed free movement because of his father's power. He also wanted his daughter Niusia in. Dolek appealed to Bosch, but expected little because his wife, Regina had no experience making shells. Yet within a week they were on the next Emalia list. Long afterward, Emalia people would call it a paradise. Regina Perlman-Rodriguez was Jewish, yet with a dark complexion so she could pass with forged Aryan papers. She went to see Schindler, but he would not see her because of a Pole. He finally lets her see him. She wanted jobs for her parents. He turned her down. Within a month her parents were in Emalia. There was a campaign to get Rabbi Menasha Levartov, a liberal rabbi, into Emalia. Stern believed that Goeth would kill Levartov because of his presence. The only reason that Goeth did not at one occasion is that he killed a nineteen year old boy instead, and that satisfied him. Goeth almost killed him for making too few hinges that day, but only hit him.

Chapter Twenty-Four: Oskar had to depend on black market shipments for food for his workers. Goeth's protege was Josef Neuschel. While visiting Emalia, they spotted a prisoner named Lamus pushing abarrow too slowly. He was to be arrested for it. A young NCO, Grun, made the arrest. Schindler bribed him. Krautwirt, a prisoner, was hung for singing seditious songs- supposedly. The hanging didn't kill him, so he pleaded for mercy from Amon, who kicked him away and shot him in the head. When Dr. Sedlacek visited again, Schindler suggested that Goeth's temper might be affected by the bad wine that he drank. Amon liked to see himself as Amon the Good. He stopped arbitrarily murdering people. Schindler drank with Amon. Amon beat Roman Ginter for supposedly forgetting to deliver the handcuffs. It was really Neuschel's mistake.

Chapter Twenty-Five: Schindler bribed Dr. Sopp to get special medical papers for Helene Schindler- no relation.

Chapter Twenty-Six: Raimund Titsch was a quiet, ckerly Austrian Catholic who managed Madritsch's uniform factory. He was paid through chess matches with Goeth. He played bad chess to save prisoners. Titsch photographed the camp. He was later considered a traitor by ODESSA, the postwar society of SS men. The photos were not developed until after his death. Once, Julius Schindler visited and toured the factories after a night of drinking. The official party began its inspection when all the lights went out. (Friends of Stern put them out). They inspected the factory with only the light of a flashlight. Josef Bau fell in love with Rebecca Tannenbaum, a manicurist. She was afraid that a wrong move and she would be shot or mauled by his dogs. One of the dogs did attack her one day. Amon shot a prisoner indiscriminately for the theft of a chicken. After, when asked who did it, a smart boy says that the dead man did. Hujar fell in love with a German prisoner. The Rosners were forced to play "Gloomy Sunday" on request. Plaszow underwent a change in management. Not only did Oskar have to kiss up to Goeth and Scherner, he had to go out to Oranienberg. Oskar tried to prove the usefulness of his camp with a letter from Colonel Erich Lange. The only time that men and women could meet was before lining up, so each couple devised a tune to meet the other quickly. Josef married Rebecca; Mrs. Bau officiated. They had not been together more than ten minutes on the upper bunk when the barracks lights came on. Bau ran back to his barracks and concocted a false story about diarrhea. Luckily, they weren't even looking for him, but instead three young Zionists.

Chapter Twenty-Seven: Oskar could tell that he was fattening at his thirty-sixth birthday. His relationship with Ingrid had cooled somewhat. Amon demanded Oskar's Mercedes for continued support of his camp. The Rosners played for Oskar in his office. Poldek had to sneak young Olek Rosner into the camp. The SS started burning the piles of dead bodies. Now that Plaszow was a Concentration Camp, it was safer to encounter Amon. Some eight to ten thousand people were exhumed. The SS shot Spira, which proved to Oskar that even the most obedient Jew could not depend on survival. After watching the burning bodies, Oskar demanded to Stern that he would get all of them out, or at least Stern himself.

Chapter Twenty-Eight: Mietek Pemper was Amon's secretary, who would one day work with Schindler. He came to the job accidentally. Mietek did not often do confidential dictations. He memorized all the documents, such as ones on the flogging of women. Pemper read a letter from the Labor Allocation Chief asking how many Hungarians could be held at Plaszow temporarily. Amon's answer was that Plaszow was full, and could only accomodate more if the unproductive element were destroyed or if double bunking was imposed. Amon was given permission for the first option. The prisoners were lined up naked for the sorting out process. At the end, 1400 adults and 268 children were sent to Auschwitz. Some of the other children hid various places. One child hid in the latrine with ten others.

Chapter Twenty-Nine: Oskar, Madritsch, and Bosch felt that a meeting with Amon was a joke. Only Leo John did not think so. The meeting was about a security threat. Amon was going to move the Jews to Mauthausen. Oskar has the trains washed down, despite Amon's objections. Adam Garde, on July 20, had to see Oskar, who was listening to German music. There was an attempt on Hitler's life. For hours both waited, thinking that Hitler might have been murdered. Pomorska Street crawled with rumors that Plaszow would be disbanded. Amon was not worried about the camp being disbanded but about Wilek Chilowicz, his Jewish chief of camp police who was a black market agent. Amon gave Chilowicz a gun, then charged him with having a weapon and murdered him. Amon had Pemper type a list of insurgents and leave a space for another name at the bottom. Pemper knew that his name was to go there, but left the space anyway. Luckily, the space was for the name of an elderly prisoner who supposedly knew about a stash of diamonds.

Chapter Thirty: The OKH orders for the liquidation of Plaszow sat on Oskar's desk. There was to be 'relocation,' which mean that the men would be sent to Gross-Rosen and the women to Auschwitz. Everybody believed that this was the end. Oskar had a list in mind. Oskar visited Amon, who had few visitors now. They bet on blackjack. Helen came in dressed in black. Amon had ordered Ivan and Petr to shoot Helen by the birch tree, but it wasn't possible. He bet on Helen Hirsch, and offered from 7,400 zloty to 14,800 if he lost. Amon gave Oskar an eight and five. He then got a five and an ace (total: 19). Amon dealt a four, then a king. He had a three and four beforehand.

Chapter Thirty-One: Oskar visited Madritsch, who employed more than three thousand in his uniform factory. He was much more humane than was safe. Madritsch left his options open. Oskar then went to Colonel Erich Lange, and told him that he was to make artillery shells. Oskar also had to placate the Governor of Moravia, who did not want any Jews. Amon was arrested for embezzlements and black market dealings. They suspected that Helen was involved in the swindles, as well as Mietek Pemper. Pemper was jailed. At last they let him out when he told them that one prison was no worse than another. Oskar went down to see Sussmuth the engineer. Near Zwittau, in Brinnlitz, was a great textile plant that could be converted. When he returned, he found that an Allied bomber had crashed on the two end barracks in the backyard prison. There was great opposition to Oskar's plan, but Oskar spent 100,000 RM to grease the transfer to Brinnlitz. Oskar tried to work on Madritsch, but he did not believe that Moravia would work. Seventy Madritsch prisoners were added. Poldek and Mila's names were added, as were the Rosners and Uri and Moshe Bejski. Marcel Goldberg put together the list.

Chapter Thirty-Two: Some Emalia prisoners did not make it on the list, for they were crossed off by Goldberg to make room for others. Some SS officers, like Hassebroeck, were actually happy about the Moravia camp, because they thought it would extend the empire of concentration camps. They were sent through Gross-Rosen and examined. They were taken to the showers. They were soon let out of Gross-Rosen and reached Brinnlitz.

Chapter Thirty-Three: The Brinnlitz camp was built at Oskar's expense. He was required to have wire fencing and other camp materials. Emilie came to live with him in Brinnlitz. Oskar wound down his relationships with Ingrid and Victoria. The women were still in Auschwitz. The Schindler women feared that thehy would be gassed. The doctors of Auschwitz, including Josef Mengele, often inspected them. They realized that no call of Schindlerfrauen would keep them alive for long. Schindler vowed to get them out. The SS garrison sent to Brinnlitz was mostly older and more sober men. Oskar was arrested for a third time because of his connections with Goeth. Oskar had Emilie call Victoria, and have her arrange his release by using Martin Plathe and Julius Schindler's people. A man named Huth approached Schindler and shook his handcuffed hands. Oskar denied giving money to Amon. Amon falsely believed that Mietek Pemper and Helen Hirsch were loving servants. Luckily, his credentials checked out, but he was not let out. Moshe Bejski, the rubber stamp maker, remembered the confusion while Oskar was away. The women were still in Auschwitz under Rudolf Hoss (Sophie's master in Sophie's Choice). Oskar tried to bribe the Auschwitz people. Oskar offered a diamond to a secretary for her to sleep with the Auschwitz commandant. Some of the women considered suicide. Oskar had difficulty convincing SS people that the children were essential; he said that they could polish the shells with their fingers. The women were finally let out, but Mrs. Krumholz and Mrs. Sternberg were not. They tore through the fence to rejoin the Schindler women. Janka Feigenbaum, a nineteen year old with cancer, was treated by Emilie. Emilie's kindnesses almost equaled Oskar's.

Chapter Thirty-Four: Typhus was a major concern at Brinnlitz. A delousing unit was put in to control the typhus. The typhus epoidemic never developed. Oskar stayed away from Brinnlitz for stretches of time. Janek Drener was accused of sabotage. He was nineteen. He was almost executed. Oskar put on a show, pretending that Janek did something incredibly stupid in order to save him.

Chapter Thirty-Five: The Brinnlitz factory produced nothing during its operation. All of its armaments failed quality control. Brinnlitz only passed inspections because of the trickery of Oskar's workers. Oskar pretended to be fixing all of his problems. Ernst Hahn came to inspect. He did so drunk. Oskar did more bribing.

Chapter Thirty-Six: It was thought that Oskar suffered from a Jewish virus. Oskar demanded thirty more metal workers from other camps. Schindler refused to burn the dead, such as Janka Feigenbaum. Oskar brought more workers in. Amon came to visit Brinnlitz, more gaunt and jaundiced. Helen Hirsch was frightened. Oskar talked him out- or bought him off- of a job. Amon tried to go after Pemper when he found out that the SS had questioned him.

Chapter Thirty-Seven: Niusia made a canned speech at Oskar's birthday party. The party was festive, but Oskar knew that there were orders to kill all the camp prisoners if the Russians came near. Not even Herr Commandant Josef Liepold knew of this command. Oskar had to get rid of Liepold because he would carry out the order. The other SS officers would not. Oskar made a number of complaints to Hassebroeck. Oskar invited Liepold to dinner and got him drunk. He acted strange the next day, which gave Oskar an additional reason to complain. Oskar made an astounding birthday speech. Liepold was transfered to Prague. Stern and Oskar planned for Oskar to be found by the Americans, even though it was likely that the Russians would take Moravia. The Germans surrendered on May 7. A jeweler named Licht made a ring from Jereth's gold teeth. A Talmudic verse was on it. Oskar gave a speech. He said, in a way, "Thank you for helping me make a fool of the system." He warned the prisoners not to rob and plunder. He thanked the SS men for resisting the barbaric nature of their calling. There was a three minute silence for the dead.

Chapter Thirty-Eight: Oskar gave Bankier the key to a naval supply store in which supplies were held. Eight prisoners traveled with Oskar and Emilie. The oldest was Edek Reubenski, who would tell details about the journey. Pfefferberg had to fix the Mercedes, because someone had cut the wiring. The fabric was distributed. A Panzer unit came down from Zwittau on the second night. Two shells hit the camp, wounding a girl. Oskar and Emilie found the Czech army. When Oskar left the car, it was stripped. They found the American forces, which had a field rabbi. Pfefferberg sends an SS unit away by making claims of typhus. The camp was liberated by a single Russian officer. They were told that there were no Jews in Poland, and not to go either east or west. Most of the older prisoners stayed in the camp. Manci heard of Henry and Olek's survival from a cousin. Regina Horowitz made inquiries about Richard, but there was no news. She saw him in a film clip. At Linz, Oskar's group reported to the American authorities, and were taken to Nuremberg. They stayed with Richard Rechen's aunt. Oskar knew enough about Judaism to pass any cultural tests from the Americans, but his looks didn't make him seem like a prisoner of the SS. Oskar stayed with the Rechens- a pattern which would continue for the rest of his life.

Epilogue: Oskar's high season ended then. His latest mistress was Jewish girl who survived worse camps. He was still a great discoverer of unprocurables. Amon Goeth was captured by Patton's Americans while a patient at Bad Tolz. Amon considered calling Helen Hirsch and Oskar Schindler as defense witnesses. Pemper was a prosecution witness. Oskar identified Liepold, who was hung for earlier murders in Budzyn. Oskar became a nutria farmer in Argentina. In 1957 they became bankrupt. Emilie and Oskar moved into a house provided by B'nai B'rith in a suburb of Buenos Aires. Within a year, he left for Germany alone, and lived in Frankfurt. The Schindlerjuden invited him to Israel at his expense. He was declared a Righteous person. Only four disparaging testimonies were given: two from the C's, one from the C's secretary alleging punching and bullying, and the fourth was from a man who claims to have a prewar interest in an enamel factory. A tree was planted for him and for Madritsch. Oskar cooperated with the Federal Justice Department in the pursuit of war criminals. He called Bosch a murderer. Oskar worked for the German Friends of Hebrew University. He still lived and drank like a young man. He was in love with a German woman named Annemarie. He became very ill, and in October 1974 collapsed at his small apartment and died on October 9. He was mourned on every continent.